Several foreign domestic helpers ask me about the first aid of children's nosebleeds, so I would like to share this topic with all children's caregivers(I wrote it in Chinese before “育兒知識- 幼兒流鼻血急救方法、常見原因及日常護理 27/3/2018”). Remember to share it with you foreign domestic helper(s) if you are employers.
New parents may feel worried and panic to see their children suffering from nosebleeds. Bleeding from the nose are common for children. In most conditions, it is not a sign of any underlying problem, can be stopped easily in few minutes.
Steps to Stop a Nose Bleed
1 The caregiver should keep calm.
(if the kid sees that the adult are nervous or crying, they will feel more worried and nervous)
2 Let the child sit upright, keeping the head higher than the level of the heart. Do not lay flat or put the head between the legs.
(this reduces the blood pressure in the blood vessels of the nose, will discourage further bleeding)
3 Ask the child to lean forward slightly with the head tilted forward.
(this will drain blood down his/her nose instead of down the back of the throat. Leaning back or tilting the head back allows the blood to run back into the sinuses and throat, which may cause gagging/ inhaling of blood)
4 Teach the child to breathe with his mouth, use the thumb and index finger all the soft parts of the nostrils below the bridge of the nose with pressure for at least 10 minutes.Repeat as necessary until the nose has stopped bleeding.
5 Apply ice pack/ cold compress (wrapped in a towel) on the forehead or the back of the neck.
(Cold causes blood vessels to constrict, reducing blood flow, swelling and inflammation. Pressure on the back of the neck restricts flow of blood to the head)
6 Teach the child not to blow the nose/put anything into it. If the child has to sneeze, teach him/her to open the mouth so that the air will escape out the mouth and not through the nose.
If the bleeding eventually stops, no need to seek medical advice.
The parents should consider to bring the child to see a doctor/ the hospital's Accident & Emergency Department only if the nosebleed won't stop.
You must report to the employer whenever the child has nosebleeds if you are a domestic helper.
Reasons for Nosebleeds
There are many reasons that cause nosebleeds in children(2-10 years old) the most common ones include:
1. Stay in the place with low humidity or high temperature for long time(such as dry winter or summer air) may cause the inside of the nose to become dry
2. Children's nasal mucosa is more fragile than adults, full of tiny, delicate blood vessels which can be damaged and caused bleeding easily by~
Blow the nose with force
Habitual pickingthe nose.
3. Blood-related diseases, such as abnormalities in the quantity or quality of platelets, abnormal coagulation mechanisms, etc.
4. Knocks and Bumps to the nose
When a child experiences nosebleeds frequently or regularly, parents should consider to bring hime/her to seek medical care. If necessary, they may refer the child to an ear, nose and throat (ENT) specialist for further tests and assessment.
Prevention of Nosebleeds
Things to do to reduce the chance of nosebleeds include:
1 teach the child not to pick the nose, blow the nose gently, as little as possible.
2 keep the child’s fingernails short, teach the children to keep their noses clean and develop good hygienic habits.
3 make sure the child has enough water intake throughout the day.
4 when the humidity is low/temperature is dry, regularly apply petroleum jelly (such as Vaseline) to the inside of the child’s nostrils to keep the inside of the nose moist.
5 keep the home humidified
6 let the child wear a head guard during activities in which his/her nose or head could get injured.
Next time, when a child has nosebleeds, we know how to handle it. May this article bless all the caregivers and the children.
If you want to give your child better care and protection, please consider to equip yourself or your domestic helper by applying for the the following class:
Common Infant and Child Diseases, Nursing Care, Home Safety for Newborn and Children Class 初生嬰幼兒常見疾病、家居常見意外及護理 (英語教授)（Course Code 課程編號：EE20180524b)