First Aids, Common Causes and Prevention for children's Nosebleeds


Several foreign domestic helpers ask me about the first aid of children's nosebleeds, so I would like to share this topic with all children's caregivers(I wrote it in Chinese before “育兒知識- 幼兒流鼻血急救方法、常見原因及日常護理 27/3/2018”). Remember to share it with you foreign domestic helper(s) if you are employers.

New parents may feel worried and panic to see their children suffering from nosebleeds. Bleeding from the nose are common for children. In most conditions, it is not a sign of any underlying problem, can be stopped easily in few minutes.

Steps to Stop a Nose Bleed

1 The caregiver should keep calm.

(if the kid sees that the adult are nervous or crying, they will feel more worried and nervous)

2 Let the child sit upright, keeping the head higher than the level of the heart. Do not lay flat or put the head between the legs.

(this reduces the blood pressure in the blood vessels of the nose, will discourage further bleeding)

3 Ask the child to lean forward slightly with the head tilted forward.

(this will drain blood down his/her nose instead of down the back of the throat.  Leaning back or tilting the head back allows the blood to run back into the sinuses and throat, which may cause gagging/ inhaling of blood)

nosebleeds pic.jpeg

4 Teach the child to breathe with his mouth, use the thumb and index finger all the soft parts of the nostrils below the bridge of the nose with pressure for at least 10 minutes.Repeat as necessary until the nose has stopped bleeding.

5 Apply ice pack/ cold compress (wrapped in a towel) on the forehead or the back of the neck.

(Cold causes blood vessels to constrict, reducing blood flow, swelling and inflammation. Pressure on the back of the neck restricts flow of blood to the head)

6 Teach the child not to blow the nose/put anything into it. If the child has to sneeze, teach him/her to open the mouth so that the air will escape out the mouth and not through the nose.


If the bleeding eventually stops, no need to seek medical advice.

The parents should consider to bring the child to see a doctor/ the hospital's Accident & Emergency Department only if the nosebleed won't stop.  

You must report to the employer whenever the child has nosebleeds if you are a domestic helper.


Reasons for Nosebleeds

There are many reasons that cause nosebleeds in children(2-10 years old) the most common ones include:

1. Stay in the place with low humidity or high temperature for long time(such as dry winter or summer air) may cause the inside of the nose to become dry

2. Children's nasal mucosa is more fragile than adults, full of tiny, delicate blood vessels which can be damaged and caused bleeding easily by~

  • Sneezing
  • Blow the nose with force

  • Habitual pickingthe nose.

3. Blood-related diseases, such as abnormalities in the quantity or quality of platelets, abnormal coagulation mechanisms, etc.

4. Knocks and Bumps to the nose

When a child experiences nosebleeds frequently or regularly, parents should consider to bring  hime/her to seek medical care. If necessary, they may refer the child to an ear, nose and throat (ENT) specialist for further tests and assessment.


Prevention of Nosebleeds

Things to do to reduce the chance of nosebleeds include:

1  teach the child not to pick the nose, blow the nose gently, as little as possible.

2 keep the child’s fingernails short, teach the children to keep their noses clean and develop good hygienic habits.

3 make sure the child has enough water intake throughout the day.

4 when the humidity is low/temperature is dry, regularly apply petroleum jelly (such as Vaseline) to the inside of the child’s nostrils to keep the inside of the nose moist.

5 keep the home humidified

6 let the child wear a head guard during activities in which his/her nose or head could get injured.

Next time, when a child has nosebleeds, we know how to handle it. May this article bless all the caregivers and the children. 


If you want to give your child better care and protection, please consider to equip yourself or your domestic helper by applying for the the following class:

Common Infant and Child Diseases, Nursing Care, Home Safety for Newborn and Children Class 初生嬰幼兒常見疾病、家居常見意外及護理 (英語教授)(Course Code 課程編號:EE20180524b)



育兒知識- 幼兒流鼻血急救方法、常見原因及日常護理




  1. 家長/照顧者保持冷靜。 讓孩子坐下,頭微俯。
  2. 讓孩子用口呼吸,然後用兩手指緊壓鼻翼5-10分鐘,稍微向內向上用力。
  3. 冷敷其前額。 著孩子不要吞咽喉間的血液。(流出的血量可能甚多,如傷者吞下血液,可能會引致嘔吐;如吸入血液,則會咳嗽或窒息。)
  4. 鬆解緊束衣物。
  5. 揑鼻10分鐘後,假如還未能止血,再次緊壓鼻翼10分鐘。
  6. 在止血後,囑傷者4小時內不要擤鼻涕或挖鼻孔。
  7. 如仍未止血,立即將傷者送往醫院治療。

幼兒容易出現流鼻血的原因可以很多, 常見的包括: 

  • 長時間身處在乾燥的空氣中 (例如:夏天)
  • 幼兒的鼻黏膜比大人的要來的脆弱,若鼻子受到撞擊、挖鼻孔、打噴嚏、擤鼻涕太用力、或習慣性搓揉鼻子等,都有可能造成流鼻血的現象。
  • 血液相關疾病, 如:血小板的量或質出現異常、凝血機制異常等

除此以外, 家長平日應教導幼兒鼻子護理:

  1. 教導孩子平日不應用手刮鼻孔, 保持鼻子清潔, 養成良好衛生習慣。
  2. 天氣講措施,確保孩子全日任足夠水分。
  3. 故此,如果孩子經常流鼻血,家長應考慮帶幼兒求醫,檢查原因,對症治療。

Caring for Elderly with Dementia video for Foreign Domestic Helper to watch

Please let your foreign domestic helper watch the video teaching if she needs to take care of elderly with Dementia:

The video of the “Caring for Elderly with Dementia Guide to Foreign Domestic Helper” (“the Guide”), which was produced by Kwai Tsing District Office and Kwai Chung Hospital in 2018. It will be broadcasted via domestic free TV channel with details as follows:

Jade Channel 81:
21 January (3:30 p.m. – 4:15 p.m.)

Finance Channel 85:
27 January (1:00 p.m. – 1:45 p.m.)
3 February (11:00 a.m. – 11:45 a.m.)
11 February (4:00 p.m. – 4:45 p.m.)

You may also click on the buttons below for the trilingual Guide and its dubbed video with corresponding subtitles:

Indonesian version:'s_disease_Video_BI.mp4

English version:…/Alzheimer's_disease_Video_English.mp4

Mandarin version:'s_disease_Video_Mandarin.mp4


 葵青民政事務處(民政處)與葵涌醫院在2017年將全港首創的三語《照顧患有認知障礙症長者 家傭照顧手冊》製作成手冊影片(備繁簡體中文、英文及印尼語三語字幕),教授照顧患者的知識和技巧。為廣泛向市民推廣這套影片,今年民政處及葵涌醫院會透過免費電視頻道播放手冊影片,讓市民透過影像和模擬劇情,加強對照顧患者的認識和理解,從而進一步促進社區對認知障礙症的認知。


 翡翠台(81台) 首播
1月21日 (星期日) 下午3:30至4:15
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1月27日 (星期六) 下午1:00至1:45
 2月3日 (星期六) 上午11:00至11:45
 2月11日 (星期日) 下午4:00 至4:45

如要重溫有關特輯,可瀏覽以下網址:(或「攜青」Facebook專頁。隨函並附上宣傳海報,希望各位機構負責人能協助向轄下相關服務機構或有需要的人士宣傳。如對上述事宜有任何查詢,請與本處聯絡主任主管周志聰先生(電話:2494 4557)或與高級聯絡主任(二) 張詠絲女士聯絡(電話:2494 4533)。 




clothes winter.jpg


你可知你們的外傭是否有足夠的衣服和被子保暖嗎?請問他們,不要猜測。雖然僱主沒有義務為外傭購買新衣服,但你應該為他們提供足夠的衣服、睡覺時有足夠的被子保暖。如果這是他們的第一個冬天,這就更加重要。若外傭因為不夠溫暖而生病,你的家人也會受苦。除了要分擔他所有的工作外, 你還要照顧她。



在冬天, 人自然會想多吃點東西。你的外傭也一樣。很多時,外傭不主動告訴僱主關於食物的問題,不是因為沒問題,而是因為害羞。詢問並得到答案。如果你的外傭告訴你不夠食物/他們很快感到飢餓/你沒有太多的時間讓他們煮自己的早餐/午餐,請考慮讓你的外傭在晚上煮更多的米飯、肉類和蔬菜,並吩咐他們準備2個飯盒,1個早餐時吃,1個午餐時吃。加熱一個飯盒不用花他們太多時間。飢餓的外傭通常是健忘的、面無表情、態度差、表現不理想。


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Gentle reminders for employers in winter

Dear employers of foreign domestic helpers:

Below are some gentle reminders for you in winter. It will help to promote their efficiency and effectiveness at work, increase harmony at your home.

Sufficient clothes to keep warm

Do you know if your helpers have enough clothes and blankets/quilts to keep warm It is winter?  Please ask them. Do not guess. Although employers have no obligation to buy new clothes for helpers, you should provide them with enough clothes to keep warm at work, enough blankets/quilts to keep warm when sleep. It is very important, especially if this is their first winter. If your helpers get sick because of not getting warm enough, your family will suffer too. You may need to pick up all her work and take care of her.

Most of the helpers, no matter Indonesians or Filipinos, do not mind to wear second-hand clothes. Ask your friends or relatives with similar sizes for second-hand clothes, and give it to your helpers. 

Enough food to eat

We may want to eat more in winter. Same as your helpers. Do your helpers have enough food to eat in winter? Ask and get the answer. Usually, helpers are shy to tell their employers about food problem. 

If your helpers say that the food provided is not enough/ they will feel hungry quickly/ you do not want them to spend much time cook their breakfast/lunch, please consider asking your helper to cook more rice, meat and vegetables at night, so they can pack 2 lunch boxes, 1 for their breakfast, 1 for their lunch. It does not take much time to reheat a lunch box. A hungry helper is usually forgetful, easy to show blackface, impolite, poor in performance.

 Most Filipinos and Indonesians like to eat rice for breakfast, lunch and dinner. Although we encourage the helpers to eat whatever employers provide, rice gives people a better sense of fullness than bread, congee, cereals, especially in winter. 

gloves 2.jpeg

Use gloves in washing dishes and cleaning

Do you provide your helpers with gloves in washing dishes and cleaning? If not, please buy gloves for them and ordered them to use it. If you do not allow them to use gloves in cleaning and washing dishes, please provide them with hand cream. If their hands crack because of touching the water too frequently, it will be very painful, and pain will prevent them to focus at work. It is cheaper to buy them gloves than bring them to see a doctor.


Provide your helpers with sufficient clothes to keep warm, enough food to eat; ask them to use gloves in washing dishes and cleaning/ provide them with hand cream. Your helpers can feel your love and care directly, will perform better. May all employers and helpers enjoy a warm winter and a warm family

How to handle the food arrangement of your Filipino domestic helper(s)?

food problem.jpeg

What does the contract say about food?

5(b).  "The Employer shall provide the helper with suitable and furnished accommodation as per the attached Schedule of Accommodation and Domestic Duties and food free of charge. If no food is provided, a food allowance of HK$1053 a month shall be paid to the helper."

In the past few years, I worked in a Filipino helpers agent, to coach helpers, employers and handle employer-helper conflicts. I am surprised to find out that lack of food is the most common reason for a helper to quit. It is because employers and helpers’ interpretation of the meaning of “ providing food” are different. These conflicting understandings lead to many actual conflicts and premature terminations.

 Common Conflicts on Food

 Hong Kong Employers     

  • Eat 3 meals per day, i.e. breakfast, lunch, dinner.
  • Assume they are reasonable employers because they provide the helper's food for breakfast, lunch, dinner. Believe that the helpers should buy their own snacks.
  • Think helpers should eat whatever the employer provides.
  • Feel offended if a helper asks for food allowance, think the helpers
  • has no right to ask for that.
  • Some employers want their helpers to eat healthily, while some employers do not care about the nutritional value of the food provided to the helpers & provide the poor nutritional value food, e.g. instant noodle, congee, canned food, leftovers, food from fast food stores etc.
  • employers think all helpers should know where to find something to eat. If a helper does not know what and when to eat, she should ask the employer.                        

Filipino Domestic Helpers

  • Eat 5-7 times per day breakfast, lunch, dinner AND  afternoon tea +/- morning snack before breakfast, morning tea, night snack.
  • Assume their employer will provide food whenever she is hungry, that means provide 5-7 meals per day, including snacks.  
  • Some may dislike the food their employers provide.
  • If the employer fails to provide them with enough food OR if they dislike the food provided, they will ask for the "food allowance". They do not want to have conflicts with employers over food and this seems to them a reasonable alternative.
  • Some helpers don't worry about health, they just buy whatever is affordable and familiar But some helpers like to eat healthily and eat fresh food, dislike the food left overnight, canned food and instant noodle.
  • Some helpers are hungry because of they do not know what/when to eat, or they are afraid to eat if the employer does not tell her what to eat. Filipinos are shy to ask question
  • related to food.

How to avoid/resolve conflicts over food

During the interview,

  • ask applicants if they have dietary restrictions and state clearly what you expect the food arrangements will be.
  • If they are unhappy with the food, will you consider giving them a food allowance instead? If so, tell them so when you confirm to hire them.

If you choose to provide food,

  • please state clearly what kind of food she can eat, what kind of food she cannot eat without your permission, what and when to eat for breakfast, lunch, if they need to wait for your permission before they can eat.
  • Helpers should not be picky about the food provided by the employer. At the same time, if employers should encourage their helpers to tell if the food is not enough. Tell them clearly that you want them to have enough food to eat, enough energy to work, do not be shy.

  • Provide some snacks at home, so the helper can eat when they feel hungry, and inform you when they are lack of stock.

If you choose to give a food allowance,

  • please give the allowance at the beginning of the month, not at the end of the month, so they have money to buy food. Let your helper signed for receiving the allowance.
  • Respect their choice of food.   Some employers and helpers like to eat healthily, some employers and helpers do not care if the food is healthy. If you give your helpers food allowance, it is okay to advise them to eat healthily, but at the same time, please respect their choice of food.
  • state clearly after giving the food allowance, will you let her use any ingredients/food, like salt, oil, rice, where she can store her food.


It is good for employers either to provide their helpers with food or food allowance, as long as employers set the rules clearly.

Learn more insights on how to manage a Filipino worker by attending our Employer Orientation Class (僱主裝備班). You will learn about the common problems that arise between employers and helpers and how to prevent and resolve them.




food problem.jpeg


過去幾年,我在菲傭公司工作,負責訓練菲傭、僱主及處理僱傭糾紛,驚訝地發現最常見菲傭辭職的原因是: 缺乏食物。究其原因,僱主和菲傭原來對“提供食物”的理解存在很大差異, 這直接引起不少衝突。很多菲傭甚至最終因為食物問題-吃不飽/ 不喜歡僱主提供的食物而辭職。



-很多家庭每天吃三餐,即早、午和晚餐。因此,普遍僱主認為他們為菲傭提供早、午、晚三餐, 是合理安排。菲傭若想吃三餐以外的零食/茶點等,便應自己付款購買。

-如菲傭要求食物津貼, 有些僱主會感到憤怒/ 不合理, 認為已經向菲傭提供足夠食物,菲傭無權要求食物津貼。雙方關係有次轉差。

-一些僱主希望菲傭吃得健康。假如外傭飲咖啡/ 偏食,僱主便會嘮叨,令雙方關係緊張。



-有些誤以為所有的外傭都應知道在家中找東西吃。如果菲傭不知道什麼時候可以吃/ 吃什麼,便應主動問僱主。


-菲律賓人普遍每天吃5-7次早餐,徐了早、午、晚餐外,還有早餐前的茶點、上午茶、下午茶、晚間小吃等。故此,菲傭理解 "僱主會提供食物",即指在他們飢餓的時候,會提供食物。那就意味著僱主每天會提供5-7餐食物,包括正餐和小吃、零食。

-不少菲傭因為食物份量不足又不敢告訴僱主 只有半飽,影響工作表現。

-也有些不喜歡僱主提供的食物/ 自知偏食,而長期用自己錢買食物給自己。


-一些十分注重身體健康。他們喜歡吃健康、新鮮的食物,不喜歡過隔夜飯餸、罐頭和方便麵, 認為僱主若長期提供營養價值低的食物給他們,等同漠視他們的健康。

-另一些不關心食物的營養價值,他們偏食/ 只要方便煮食/ 價錢便宜/; 很多每天飲一至三杯咖啡提神。對於僱主常常嘮叨他們的飲食,感到煩厭。

-也有些菲傭投訴時常挨餓,因為他們不知道何時可以吃/ 吃什麼 /如僱主不告訴她可以吃,他們便不敢吃。菲傭普遍由於害羞,不敢/不會向他們的僱主提出有關食物的問題。




1 在面試中,詢問申請人是否有飲食偏好,並明確說明你預算中的食物安排。

2 如果他們對食物不滿意,你會考慮給他們食物津貼嗎?如會的話,請你在確認僱用他們時告訴他們。

3 菲傭到你家時, 僱主應該主動告訴菲傭關於食物安排。如果您選擇提供食物,請清楚說明那些食物她可以吃、那些食物要得你同意才可以吃、那些食物不可以吃; 什麼時候吃早餐、午、晚餐,一起吃還是分開吃、是否需要等待您的許可,才可以吃等等。

4 如果您選擇提供食物津貼,請在月初給予津貼,而不是在本月底,讓他們有錢買食物。

5 尊重他們選擇的食物:


如果僱主提供食物,菲傭不應挑剔食物。菲傭也不應主動向僱主要求食物津貼。僱主則應該營造直接溝通的氣氛,鼓勵菲傭若對食物安排有任何意見,可直接告訴管理他的人。當然,我也很鼓勵僱主考慮在家裡放置一些如:咖啡、餅乾或麵包等零食,讓菲傭在餓時吃。僱主要清楚向菲傭傳遞一個訊息: 希望他吃得飽、有足夠能量工作。





假若你需要僱傭關係/糾紛資詢(每45分鐘電話資訊$200),歡迎把你的名字、聯絡電話電郵至 .

幼兒先爬行好? 或是先走路好?

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問題一: 幼兒會走路先過爬行, 從幼兒發展角度而言,這是好事嗎?原因為何?

答:這不是先後次序的問題,而是能力的問題。意思是: 幼兒不論是先走路後學爬行的動作, 還是先爬行後走路, 兩樣都冇問題。幼兒都能夠慢慢自我調適, 適應到變成正確的走路方法。

有問題的, 是那些沒有經過爬行, 便直接學會走路的幼兒。因為通常他們適應了走路後, 就缺少爬行的動機。這直接影響他們的背肌會較為軟弱, 令他們將來較容易寒背、有脊柱側彎等; 他們的協調能力也會較差。
雖然如此, 這也有補救方法, 就是讓孩子多游泳或玩攀石。這些運動可彌補沒有爬行引致的問題。


答:若幼兒喜歡學走路、不喜歡爬行, 家長應找出問題的原因。很多時幼兒有不同原因引致不喜歡爬行, 如:幼兒手、膊頭或上背下腹肌肉力量不夠力。如幼兒腹肌不夠力, 家長可以讓幼兒玩多些轉身動作。

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另外, 家長可多訓練幼兒手腳的力量, 如:多些把幼兒放在俯臥位置(prone position)。

若要訓練他們手腳的力量, 可以與他們玩球、或讓幼兒張開雙腳坐在地上, 用兩隻手支撐身體。 假如幼兒背肌不夠力, 可多和他玩飛天遊戲-- 抱住幼兒好像超人般飛-- 這對訓練背肌也很有幫助。

(受訪者: 鍾頴傑, 物理治療師。國際嬰兒按摩協會講師。教育心理學碩士、幼兒教育碩士。資料整理、筆錄: 林麗琼, 愛家寧創辦人及家庭生活教練。)

The minimum wage for Hong Kong’s foreign domestic helpers is to be increased by 2.3 per cent, to HK$4,410 a month


The Government announced that the minimum wage for foreign domestic helpers(FDH) signed on or after 30 September 2017 is to be increased from $ 4,310 to $ 4,410. Meal allowance will be increased to not less than $1,053 per month.

Some employers consult me: Do they need to increase the salary of their FDH (who are working in Hong Kong) to $ 4,410? The answer is: "NO". The salary of a FDH within two years of work is based on the amount written in the contract. By the Hong Kong law, employers cannot pay lower than the amount of salary written on contracts. But, employers also have the right to pay FDH higher salary at any time. Therefore, employers with FDH who is working in Hong Kong/ signed contract on or before September 29, 2017, have no obligation to increase their FDHs' salary to $ 4,410.  

In spite of this, FDHs will like compare their salaries to each other. There have been a FDH whose overall performance was good, often cheerful. One day, this FDH's performance got worse suddenly, and she looked very sad.  When talking to this FDH, I found out the reason: When she heard that the government increased the minimum wage for Hong Kong FDH, she regretted to come so early and was sad to earn $100 less each month. Finally, her employer decided to add $ 100 to this FDH in her monthly salary, and this FDH was so happy and thankful, that she performed better.

As an employer, if you does not mind to increase your FDH to $ 4,410, you can tell her it is an reward for her good performance at work. If the performance of your FDH is not satisfactory, you can encourage them that they can get an additional bonus of $ 100 per month if they will improved in certain areas.

For the detail of the Government's decision to increase the minimum wage for FDHs, please visit the following website: